By weight 14 parts gold to 10 parts other metals, or 58.33% pure
gold see 585.
By weight 18 parts gold to 6 parts other metals, or 75.0% pure gold,
marked 750 or 18K.
By weight 22 parts gold to 2 parts other metals, or 91.66% pure
gold, marked 22K
So called London gold, the British 14K standard is slightly higher
than the accepted US purity of 583 parts per 1000. All dvb 14K is
at the 58.5% standard and is marked 585.
18K gold is marked 750, being 750 parts gold per 1000.
dvb marks its sterling silver 925, meaning 925 parts silver per
The Accessocraft Products Corp. is a company that produces costume
jewelry, belts, buttons, and other accesories in a variety of styles.
Accessocraft was founded in 1935 in New York, NY, USA.
Acroite is a rare, colorless variety of tourmaline.
The term used to describe a gemstone with a brilliant luster
like that of a diamond.
Adularia is a common type of moonstone, a whitish-bluish
semi-translucent stone. Adularia is usually set as a cabochon. Adularia
was very popular early in the 20th century and was extensively used
in Art Nouveau jewelry. Adularia has a hardness of 6 and a specific
gravity of 2.57.
Agate is a variety of chalcedony (a family of microcrystalline
quartz). Agate is a very common stone that is often used in jewelry.
It is found in a wide range of colors, including black, gray, brown,
reddish, green, pink, blue, and yellow. Agate can be flecked with
color and is often banded, exhibiting layers of quartz. Agate is
porous and takes dye easily; it is frequently dyed to enhance the
coloration and the banding. White agate was used often in Victorian
jewelry, mostly as a background. Moss agate has green, red or black
dendritic inclusions. Onyx is agate whose bands are parallel. Eye
agate has banding arranged in concentric circles. Agate has a hardness
of 6.5 to 7 and a specific gravity of 2.6. The agate pin above is
Alexandrite is a variety of chrysoberyl. Named after Czar
Alexander II, it is a color change stone that is green in daylight
and light red in artificial light. Mined in Russia, Brazil, Burma,
Ceylon, and Rhodesia. Laboratory-produced alexandrite is common,
and it is often sold as natural alexandrite. Alexandrite has a hardness
of 8.5 and a specific gravity of 3.64-3.74.
The "Alexandrite Effect" is a phenomenon in which
a stone appears to be different colors depending upon the type of
light it is viewed in. For example, the stone alexandrite appears
to be red when seen in candle light and blue to green when seen
in fluorescent light. Many other stones exhibit the "Alexandrite
Effect," including garnet and sapphire.
An alloy is the homogeneous mixture or solid solution of
two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements.
The alloy is usually achieved by bringing the metals to a molten
state under high temperatures and fusing or dissolving them into
one solid solution. In jewelry, combining different metals is commonly
done to augment the color, hardness and/or luster of the resulting
Some common alloys used in jewelry manufacture:
Common gold alloys are made by mixing gold, silver, copper, and/or
other metals to produce 14K, 18K and 22K gold, white gold (gold
and nickel or palladium), rose gold (gold and copper), green gold
(gold with silver or silver and cadmium) , and blue gold (a recent
gold color perfected by only a few jewelers).
Sterling silver is a combination of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper,
while coin silver is 80% silver and 20% copper.
Brass is an alloy typically of 60% copper and 40% zinc.
Bronze is an alloy of at least 60% copper and tin or other metals.
Pewter is an alloy of low melting point metals including tin, lead,
antimony, bismuth and sometimes a bit of silver or copper. U.S.
manufacturer's are required by law to make lead free pewter.
Niello is a black alloy of silver, copper, lead and sulphur. It
is used to fill engraving, imparting an inlaid effect after the
metal is fired and polished.
Nickel silver (also called German silver) is a white metal alloy
of 70% copper, 20% zinc and 10% nickel. It contains no silver. Many
people are allergic to nickel and because of this, the use of nickel
silver in jewelry has been outlawed in some countries.
A violet-tinged variety of garnet that ranges from a deep rich red
to purplish red to orange reddish-brown color. The most valuable
stones contain less orange and brown. There are many varieties of
garnet, but almandine is the most common. The star garnet which
exhibits asterism is an almandine.
Alpaca (also spelled alpacca) is an alloy consisting of
mostly copper (roughly 60 percent), and approximately 20 percent
nickel, about 20 percent zinc, and about 5 percent tin. This metal
is a a silver substitute
Aluminum is a lightweight, silver-white metal. When aluminum
was first discovered in the 18th century, it was more valuable than
gold. Now inexpensive, aluminum is used in many alloys. Some inexpensive
jewelry was made using aluminum.
Amazonite is a gem variety of microcline feldspar. It displays
a schiller of light which is caused by . Amazonite varies from bright
verdigris green to a bluish green and is mined in the United States,
Brazil, Zimbabwe, Russia, Australia and Namibia.
Amazonite has a hardness of 6 and a specific gravity of 2.56-2.58.
Most Amazonite is opaque, but rare crystals are transparent.
Amber is a fossilized resin from pine trees. Amber deposits
have been found that are over 150 million years old, but most amber
used in jewelry or ornamentals is between 20-90 million years old.
As the sticky resin rough amberoozed from ancient pine trees, small
insects, plant material, feathers and other small objects in the
path of the flow became entrapped. Over time, the resin was encased
in dirt and debris and through a process of heat and pressure it
fossilized to become amber. Amber exhibits a resinous luster. Also,
see reconstituted amber and inclusions.
Amber has a hardness of 2.5 and a specific gravity of 1.05-1.10.
The term "American ruby" is actually a pyrope
garnet (and not a ruby at all). There are real rubies found in the
US, but they are not referred to as "American rubies."
Amethyst is the purple variety of quartz. Although it must
always be purple to be amethyst, it can and does have a wide range
of purple shades including purple, lilac and mauve. The most expensive
amethyst is a deep purple, but today, most amethyst is heat treated
to produce a deeper color.
Amethyst is found in geodes and alluvial deposits all over the world
and occurs in both crystalline or massiAmetrineve forms. It is a
7 on the Mohs scale of hardness.
This is a bi-color variety of quartz contining both amethyst
and citrine colors. The stone is usually cut in facets in a rectangular
shape to show both the yellow and purple colors. The Anahi Mine
in Bolivia is the major source for ametrine.
Ammolite is the mineralized, fossilized and opalized remains
of an ammonite shell which was exposed to tectonic pressure, mineralization,
and intense heat.
Sea faring creatures from the Cretaceous period, ammonites
were mollusks that built a chambered shell in which they would pump
air into the empty chambers which allowed them to float at different
levels of the ocean.
A small object usually worn around the neck or as a ring to ward
off evil, harm, or illness. May also be worn to bring good fortune
and protection from harm. A charm, fetish or good-luck piece.
Some common amulets:
The scarab amulet was sacred to the Egyptians and symbolized rebirth.
The Ankh is an Egyptian amulet which symbolized eternal life. It
is thought to be the oldest and most sacred Egyptian amulet. amuletThe
Eye of Horus amulet was believed to protect the wearer from evil
in life and in the Afterlife. Also see talisman.
An ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic representing life, or
the power to give life. A symbol that looks like a cross with a
loop at the top, many Egyptian artifacts depict the gods holding
Metal is annealed by heating to make it workable. In the
making of jewelry, precious metals become work hardened or stressed
when they are hammered, forged, rolled or bent (as in fold forming)
making it brittle. Jewelers sometime purchase metals in their annealed
state which may be referred to as soft or half hard. Different metals
become annealed at different temperatures and jewelers look for
the "color" to determine when the metal has reached its
annealed state. These colors are described as bright orange, dull
red and cherry red.
A luminous star like effect exhibited in some gemstones
like star sapphires, garnets and rubies. asterismAsterism is caused
by inclusions of tiny, parallel, rutile needles and may result in
four, six or even twelve rayed stars. (Pronounced: as-ter-iz-mm)
The effect caused by small inclusions of minerals like
mica, hematite, pyrite, or goethite which cause a gemstone to exhibit
a glistening or sparkling effect when rotated or moved. The name
is derived from aventurine, a green variety of quartz. (Pronounced:
aventurine cabochonAventurine is a translucent to opaque
variety of microcrystalline quartz. Small inclusions of shiny minerals
give the stone a sparkling effect known as aventurescence. Aventurine
ranges in color from green, peach, brown, blue and a creamy green.
Mohs hardness is 6.5. (Pronounced: ah-ven-shur-ine)
Azurite is a copper-based mineral that ranges in color from very
deep blue to pale blue. A azurite-malachiterelatively soft mineral,
azurite has a hardness of 3.5 to 4. Azurite is found in many areas
of the world including: Australia, the southwestern USA, France,
Mexico, Morocco, Nambia, Zaire, and Europe.
Malachite, which is another copper-based mineral, is often found
with azurite. When found together it is called Azurite-Malachite.