Lilly Dache is the mark of Lilly Dache, Inc., a company located
in New York and Paris. Lilly Dache produces high-quality hats, clothing,
accessories, perfume, and cosmetics. The Lily Dache mark was first
used on costume jewelry in 1923. Lilly Dache jewelry pieces are
relatively rare and expensive. Lilly Dache was born in France, and
began her fashion career there as a milliner (hat maker). She emigrated
to New York, New York, USA, in 1924. Dache is reported to have said,
"Glamour is what makes a man ask for your telephone number.
But it also is what makes a woman ask for the name of your dressmaker."
Dache's books include Lilly Dache's Glamour Book (published in 1956)
and Talking through my hats (published in 1946).
Dalsheim and "White Jet" are marks on costume jewelry
made by Dalsheim Accessories, Inc. of New York, New York, USA. The
company was founded by Maurice Dalsheim. These relatively rare marks
were first used in 1939.
Damascening is the inlaying of a soft metal (like silver or copper)
into a hard metal (like steel). The name comes from the city of
Damascus, where this process was first used.
Danburite (Calcium borosilicate - CaB2Si2O8) is a clear to white
silicate mineral whose orthorhombic crystals are transparent to
translucent (danburite can also be yellow, greenish, or brown);
it resemblestopaz. It was named for the city of Danbury in Fairfield
County, Connecticut, USA (where the original specimens were found
in 1839). Danburite is also found in Russell, New York (USA), Charcas
and San Luis Potosi (Mexico), Kyushu Island (Japan), Madagascar,
Siberia, Mogok (Myanmar), Bolivia, and Uri (Switzerland). Danburite
has a hardness of 7 - 7.3 and a specific gravity of 2.97 - 3.02.
Its streak is white.
Danecraft is a mark used on silver and vermeil (gold-plated silver)
costume jewelry produced by Felch and Company, which was founded
by Victor Primavera in 1938 in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. The
company is now called Felch-Wehr (since 1977) and still produces
silver and vermeil jewelry. Before the formation of Felch and Company,
Victor and his brother Thomas had run the Primavera Brothers Jewelry
Company in the 1930's, until Thomas' death. Primavera is a name
now used by Danecraft for a line of its jewelry. Danecraft's Wingback
earrings (from the 1950's) were a major product of the company.
The piece above is a older Danecraft cat and dog pin.
Darya-i-Nur (meaning "Sea of Light") is one of the largest-known
diamonds. It is a flawless, transparent, pink diamond from India,
weighing about 175 to 195 carats. It was taken to Prrsia (now Iran)
after Persia's attack on Delhi, India, in l739. The Darya-i-Nur
is in the crown jewels of Iran, and was worn by the Shah of Iran.
Dead pawn is an item that was pawned but was never collected by
the original owner.
A "dead" stone is a foil-backed rhinestone that has lost
its original shininess, usually after water has damaged the foil.
For example, a "dead" clear rhinestone will appear dull
and off-white, greenish or yellowish.
Dead soft is a term that refers to very soft-tempered metal. Dead
soft wire is the most easily bent wire. For example, copper electrical
wire is dead soft.
Jewelry made from Delft faience (tin-glazed earthenware) is usually
set in silver, often with delicate filigree work and granulation.
The classic hand-painted blue-on-white pottery often depicts windmills,
flowers, and Dutch landscapes. Delftware jewelry includes necklaces,
pendants, earrings, pins, bracelets, rings, charms, and cufflinks.
Delft pottery has been in production in Holland since the middle
1600s, but Delft jewelry dates from much later. Delft blue is the
most recognized Delft style, but other colors and styles have been
used in Delft pottery and jewelry.
De Lizza & Elster
The De Lizza & Elster (D & E) company manufactured costume
jewelry, buttons, and buckles; they sold wholesale to costume jewelry
companies. De Lizza & Elster made pieces for Weiss, Kramer,
Kenneth J. Lane, Hobe, Celebrity, Hattie Carnegie, Alice Caviness,
Karu, and many others (including department stores). D & E was
founded in New York, New York, by William De Lizza and Harold Elster
around 1947. William De Lizza was the main designer. The pieces
they made were not marked (only a paper hangtag indicated the brand).
In 1967, D & E began making in-house pieces that they called
"Juliana" -- these pieces were designed by Frank DeLizza
(the co-founder William De Lizza's son) and were marked by a paper
hangtag. Although D & E went out of business in the late 1990s,
Frank DeLizza is producing copies of many of his popular original
Demantoid garnets are valuable green, very lustrous garnets with
a cubic crystalline structure. They are a rare variety of andradite.
Demantoid garnets have characteristic inclusions that look like
horsetails. Demantoid garnets have a hardness of 6-7 and a specific
gravity of 3.8 - 3.9. Demantoids were very popular in the 1800's,
but are rarely used today.
A demilune (meaning "half moon") stone is shaped like
a half (or smaller) moon.
A demiparure is a matching set of jewelry, usually containing a
necklace, earrings, and a pin. See parure. The demi-parure above
is a set by Trifari.
Dendritic means tree-like, having a branching pattern (like moss
Denim lapis is a relatively pale, inexpensive variety of lapis lazuli
that is from Chile. It is the color of denim cloth due to calcite
inclusions (which whiten the stone and lower its value).
Dentelles (meaning "lace" in French) are rhinestones cut
with 32 or 64 facets.
DeRosa was a mark of the Ralph DeRosa Company of New York, New York.
DeRosa produced very high-quality costume jewelry, including necklaces,
earrings, bracelets, pins and fur clips, made from 1934 until 1970.
Pieces were often made of Sterling silver, and had beautiful prong-set
rhinestones, faux pearls, and/or excellent enamelling work.
A diadem is a tiara, a circular or semi-circular piece of jewelry
worn on the head.
Diamanté is another word for rhinestone.
Diamonds are precious, lustrous gemstones made of highly-compressed
carbon. Diamonds are one of the hardest materials known. Diamonds
have a hardness of 10, a specific gravity of 3.5, and a refractive
index of 2.417 - 2.419. Colors of diamonds range from colorless,
yellow, orange, brown, to almost black. Rarer colors are red, blue,
green, and purple; these colors (called fancies) are quite valuable.
Canary diamonds have a deep yellow color. A diamond's value is based
on the "4 C's": color, cut, clarity, and carat weight.
A diamond's color (saturation) is rated on an alphabetical scale
ranging from D (white) to Y (yellow). "Z" diamonds are
fancy, or deep-colored diamond. A diamond's cut is designed to maximize
the stone's natural "fire"; brilliant cuts are preferred.
A diamond's clarity depends on the number and size of its flaws
and inclusions (of other minerals, like quartz). Clarity is rated
from FI (flawless), IF (flawless at 10x magnification), a series
of V ratings (very small flaws at 10x magnification), a series of
S ratings (small flaws at 10x magnification), to I1, I2, and I3
(having inclusions visible to the naked eye). A diamond's carat
weight is simple how much it weighs (a carat is about 0.2 grams
or about 0.007 ounces). The largest-known gem-quality diamonds include
the Cullinan (aka the Star of Africa, 530.20 carats), the Excelsior,
the Great Mogul (an ancient Indian diamond which is said to have
originally weighed 787.5 carats, but its location is not not known
and nothing about it has been authenticaed), the Darya-i-Nur, the
Koh-i-Nur, and the Hope diamond (named for a purchaser, Henry Thomas
Diapering is a crisscross pattern of diamond-shaped lines on a raised-dot
A glass which contains ultra-thin layers of aluminum, chromium,
silicon, zirconium or the metal alloy titanium. The colors are almost
holographic in appearance.
Addition of the various elements is what produces the bold and dramatic
colors. Colloidal gold may also be added. The appearance will be
different depending on whether the light is reflected or transmitted.
Dichroism is the property of having more than one color, especially
when viewed from different angles. Many minerals (like rubies and
axinite) are naturally dichroic. This effect can be artificially
caused by a thin layer of a metallic oxides that is deposited on
the surface of a material. Dichroic coated glass transmits some
wavelengths of light and reflecting others, giving it an opal-like
Die stamping (also known as machine-stamping) is a process in which
sheet metal is cut and shaped between two dies, forming a pattern
in relief. Two steel dies are used, the male die has the design
in cameo (protruding); the female die has the design hollowed out.
The male die is put on top of the metal, the female die is put on
the underside of the metal. The press is forcefully brought down
onto the dies and metal, forcing the metal into the shape of the
mold. Many medallions and mass-produced jewelry findings are made
Diffusion is the process of color enhancing a stone by heating the
stone in the presence of iron oxide, chrome oxide or similar compounds.
The process colors the stone by infusing the outside surface of
the stone with color. Only applied to cut stones as any further
cutting would remove the color enhancement. This process is often
used on sapphires and topaz to heighten or alter the colors.
Diffusion treated stones are color-enhanced (not naturally colored)
stones. The diffusion process only colors the outer surface of the
stone, so chipping or repolishing will result in a loss of color.
Diffusion-treated stones are already-cut stones that are heated
in the presence of other compounds (like iron oxide, chromium oxide,
titanium dioxide, etc.) that will infuse the extreme outer surface
stone with color. Under a microscope, you you can see the loss of
color within each tiny scratch. Diffusion treatment can also change
the stone's refractive index. Also, if the stone is faceted, the
color will appear stonger where the facets meet.
Petrified Dinosaur Bone or"dino bone" is the result of
fossilized bone from dinosaurs in which the cellular structure has
been replaced with quartz, leaving the bone structure intact.
Christian Dior (1905-1957) was an influential French fashion
designer. In the 1950's, Dior jewelry was produced by Kramer (in
the 1950's), Henkel & Grosse (from 1955) and Mitchel Maer (from
1952-1956). In 1955, Swarovski and Christian Dior developed the
iridescent aurora borealis stone Licensed Dior jewelry continues
to be produced.
A dog collar (also known as "collier de chien") is a type
of short, multiple-strand choker-style necklace that fits tightly
against the neck. Dog collars are also known as " plaque de
cou" (meaning "neck badge") when they are fastened
by a clasp in the front. Dog collars are 14"-15" in length.
Dog Tag Jewelry
Dogtag jewelry is based on the dogtags issued to soldiers. This
type of necklace has become popular recently. Dogtag necklaces consist
of a flat, dogtag-shaped pendant strung on a silver ball chain.
Dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate, CaMgCO3) is a common type
of sedimentary rock. Dolomite occurs in crystals and in masses.
This mineral was named for the French mineralogist Déodat
de Dolomieu (1750-1801), who first described it in 1791.
A convex shape like the outside surface of a ball or sphere. This
shape is often used in earrings, pendants and components of jewelry
A doublet (also dublette) is a gem made from two layers in order
to save expenses; the lower part of the composite stone is glass
or a non-precious stone, the top is the more valuable stone. Many
different types of doublets have been manufactured (including opal
doublets). One common doublet contains a layer of real garnet and
a layer of glass. A thin, red garnet top is glued to a colored glass
bottom. A green glass bottom with a red garnet top layer produces
an emerald-like stone. A diamond is enlarged by cementing it to
a crystal base.
Doubly Refractive Stone
In doubly-refractive stones, lthe light entering the stone is split
into two light rays, and the rays travel in different paths. These
stones have more than one refractive index. Calcite, peridot, zircon,
tourmaline, and titanite are doubly-refractive stones. Bi-refringence
is another name for double refraction.
Drawn beads are cut from a long, straw-like tube of glass (the tube
is made by drawing a hot mass of glass fresh from the furnace).
The sharp-edged cut beads are often tumbled and reheated to give
them rounded edges. Some examples of drawn beads include seed beads,
bugle beads, furnace glass beads, and pony beads.
A drop cut (or briolette) is a pear-shaped cut gemstone with triangular
facets on top. This type of stone makes a nice pendant.
Drusy (sometimes referred to as: druse, druzy) is a layer of tiny
quartz crystals that form on a host stone. The cavity inside a geode
is sometimes filled with drusy quartz crystals. Although the quartz
crystals may be the source of the color (amethyst, citrine), usually
it is the host stone's color (chrysocolla, uvarovite garnet) that
shows through the quartz and gives the stone its color. (pronounced:
Druze is a layer of crystals that form within a mineral crust, like
the inner cavity of a geode. Amethyst crystals are often found in
a druze. The inner cavity of agate geodes are often lined with a
druze of sparkling quartz crystals.
A ductile substance is easily pulled or stretched into a thin wire.
gold is the most ductile metal.
Duettes are sets of jewelry made by the Coro, Trifari, and other
companies. Each "duette" has two clips which attach to
a pin base; they can be worn as a single pin or as two clips. The
enameled bird duettes above were made by the Coro company
Du Jay was a small costume jewelry company that made high quality
(and high priced) pieces during the middle 20th century. Rhinestones
and/or false pearls often adorned the lockets, pins, bracelets,
necklaces, and other jewelry items which were often made of silver
(sometimes with a gold wash). Du Jay items are hard to find.
The term used to describe gems which exhibit an earthy or dull luster,
meaning their surface does not reflect light very well. Plastic
can be described as having a dull luster as is clay. Hematite that
does not have a highly polished surface will display a dull luster.
Dumortierite (Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide) is a blue to violet
silicate mineral that is used as an ornamental stone (and sometimes
as a semi-precious stone in jewelry). Dumortierite quartz is a massive
variety of opaque quartz that is intergrown with dumortierite crystals.
Dumortierite has a hardness of 7 - 8.5 and a specific gravity of
3.3 - 3.4.
A measure of Troy weight, dwt. is the abbreviation for "pennyweight",
a measure used to weigh gold, silver, and jewels. In Troy weight,
the pound = 12 ounces, the ounce = 20 pennyweights, and the pennyweight
= 24 grains. While this method of weighing is believed to have originated
in Cairo during the crusades, the name comes from Troyes, France
where it was first used .