Ebonite (also called vulcanite) is a hard, moldable, polished dark
colored (ranging from brown to black) early rubber. Ebonite was
produced by adding sulfur to vulcanized rubber. It was used for
combs, ornaments, and buttons. Ebonite is sometimes confused with
Ebony is a hard, dark, dense wood sometimes used in jewelry.
The Edwardian period (also known as the Belle Epoque) was the time
of the reign of Edward VII of England (1901-1910). Edwardian jewelry
is delicate and elegant. Edwardian designs frequently use bows and
filagrees. Pearls and diamonds were also frequently used.
The Eisenberg company creates beautiful, high-quality costume jewelry.
It was founded by Jonas Eisenberg in Chicago, Illinois in 1942,
and is still in business. Originally, they made dresses with ornate
buttons (made by the Ora company), and expanded into the costume
jewelry business. The brooch above is a classic sterling piece from
the 1940's. Eisenberg marks include (script) E, Eisenberg Original,
and Eisenberg Ice (current).
Eilat stone is only found in King Solomon's copper mines on the
Red Sea, near Eilat, Israel. This opaque green mineral is composed
of azurite, malachite, turquoise, and chrysocolla. The hardness
of this copper-based stone varies. There are many variations on
its spelling, including Eliat, Elat, and Ellat.
Electroplating (also called Galvanotechnics after its inventor,
Luigi Galvani) is a process in which one metal is coated with another
metal using electricity. In jewelry, inexpensive metals are frequently
electroplated with more expensive metals, like gold (gold plating),
copper (electrocoppering), rhodium (rhodanizing), chromium (chromium
plating), or silver (silver plating). The thickness of the metal
coat varies. Electrogilded coating is the thinnest (less than 0.000007
inches thick); gold-cased metals have a coating thicker that 0.000007
Electrum is an amber-colored alloy of gold and silver that was used
in ancient times. Electrum is also an alloy used in medieval times
consisting of copper (50%), nickel (30%) and zinc (20%).
An Elie ruby is actually a pyrope garnet (and not a ruby at all).
Email (French for enamel) is a method in which enamel is applied
to metal. It can be applied in many different ways, including cloisonné,
champlevé, and plique à jour.
Embossing is a method of surface decoration in which a design is
raised slightly above the surface. Sheets of metal, leather, and
plastic can be embossed.
Emeralds are a very hard, green precious stone (beryl, Be3Al2Si6O18,
colored by chromium and some vanadium impurities). Flaws and cloudiness
(called jardin) are very common in emeralds, so many emeralds are
oiled, irradiatied,and dyed to improve their look. Synthetic emeralds
(developed by Carroll Chatham in the 1930's) have fewer imperfections
and are very hard to distinguish from natural emeralds. Emeralds
belong the beryl group of stones which also includes aquamarines,
morganite, and chrysoberyl). Emeralds have a hardness of 7-8 and
a specific gravity of 2.6 - 2.8. Emerald (and all forms of beryl)
have large, perfect, six-sided crystals. Emeralds were long thought
to have healing powers, especially for eyesight. During the renaissance,
emeralds were used as a test for friendship among the aristocracy;
an emerald given to a friend would remain perfect as long as the
Emerald cut stones have a girdle that is rectangular with truncated
corners. Emerald cuts are frequently used on emeralds and diamonds.
Emmons Jewelers, Inc., of Newark, NY, is a costume jewelry company
that was founded by Charles H. Stuart. Emmons produced high-quality
pieces under the marks Emmons, and Emmolite (and later, the Sarah
Coventry line). Emmons jewelry was only sold at home jewelry parties
organized by an Emmons representatives. The Emmons mark was first
used in March, 1949. The Emmolite mark (for pieces made from base
metal) was first used in January, 1955. During the late 1950's,
the Emmons company started using the Sarah Coventry name. Emmons
costume jewelry is very collectible and can be difficult to find.
Enamel is a glassy substance (powdered glass with colorants) fused
onto metal using heat (see cloisonné, champlevé, guilloche,
and plique à jour).
Engraving is a method of surface decoration in which a design is
etched into the surface with a sharp tool.
Enhanced stones are stones that have been treated to improve their
color, clarity, finish, strength, or other characteristics. Some
common enhancements are heat-treatment, irradiation, coating the
surface, filling cracks, oiling, surface diffusion (coating the
surface then applying heat), bleaching, dyeing, etc.
ESPO and ESPO-FLEX are the marks of Esposito Jewelry, Inc., a costume
jewelry company located in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. These
marks were first used in 1951.
An etched finish on a metal's surface reduces the metal's reflectivity.
It is done by using harsh chemicals to eat into the surface or by
cutting into the surface using a sharp tool.
An eternity ring is a narrow ring with gemstones set all
Ancient Etruscan jewelry has intricate and beautiful designs; most
is made of gold. The Etruscans employed a lot of delicate granulation
(n which tiny beads of gold are soldered to the surface to form
a pattern) and openwork filagree (in which filagree patterns are
not applied over sheet metal). The Etruscans lived in Northern Italy
for hundreds of years beginning in the late 8th century B.C.
An etui (also called a necessaire) is a tiny, decorative, cylindrical-shaped
case that was often carried on a chatelaine. The etui was used to
carry small "necessary" items like pencils, scissors,
manicure set, or spectacles. The etui was first used in the 1720's.
Eugene was a jewelry designer who worked for Miriam Haskell and
later started his own company around 1950. Eugene pieces were produced
until the 1960's. These pieces are often complex, having beads and
pearls, rhinestones, or enamel work.
The European cut (also known as the old European cut) is an old,
round diamond cut that is similar to but less bright than the newer
brilliant cut. The European cut has a very small table and heavy
EverGreen (R) is a trademarked type of diffusion-treated topaz.
This deep green stone is produced by heating a cut, colorless topaz
with coloring chemicals (mineral oxides), resulting in a thin layer
of green coating the outside of the stone.
An eyepin is a thin wire with a loop at one end; it is used for
linking beads together.
The Excelsior is the second or third largest diamond (depending
on whether or not the Braganza diamond was actually a diamond).
This irregular-shaped blue-white diamond was roughly 995 carats.
It was found in l893 by a worker at the De Beers mine at Jagersfontein,
Orange Free State, South Africa. The Excelsior diamond was cut in
1904 by I.J. Asscher and Company of Amsterdam into 21 stones, including
a 69.80-carat marquise, an 18-carat marquise stone (which was displayed
at the l939 World's Fair by the De Beers company), and many other